Crystals are found in laser systems as laser medium crystals or frequency conversion crystals (nonlinear crystals). Laser medium crystals, also known as gain mediums, are located inside laser cavities, and determine laser parameters such as wavelength and beam coherence. Nonlinear Crystals are used for nonlinear frequency conversion of intense light to achieve wavelength combinations of the frequencies of the input light. Optical Isolators are used to improve performance of laser systems. Optical Isolators provide one-way transmission of laser light while blocking reflections, protecting laser systems from feedback-induced damage, and increasing laser system power stability.
Edmund Optics offers lithium triborate (LBO) and β-barium borate (BBO) Nonlinear Crystals for the harmonic generation of lasers commonly used, including Nd:YAG, Yb:YAG, Yb:doped and Ti:Sapphire. Free-Space Optical Isolators with typical transmission greater than 90% are available with a range of design wavelengths up to 1070nm.